Implementation of South Carolina’s 2012 photo ID law was blocked by a federal court until 2013. At trial, the state said it would accept at face value any “honest” excuse from voters without a photo ID and allow them to vote if they sign an affidavit. Without that assurance, the law “could have discriminatory effects and impose material burdens on African‐American voters,” wrote Judge Brett Kavanaugh. Still, the burden falls hardest on African‐American and poor voters who may be intimidated by the new law, all in the name of preventing a crime (voter fraud) that exists only in the mind of Republican strategists. Again, there is virtually no evidence of widespread voter fraud anywhere in the country. However, it is indeed intimidating, not to mention embarrassing, for people to be required to sign an affidavit at the polling place. Intimidating voters in long lines is a serious deterrence to voting.